White pepper and black pepper: Where are the differences?

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Besides black pepper, white pepper is also a popular spice trusted in many households. White pepper and black pepper should be distinct thoroughly through their characteristics, health benefits, culinary uses.

Overall picture about white pepper and black pepper

2 typical types of pepper most traded in the global market are black pepper and white pepper. Black pepper and white pepper are distinct from each other due to their appearance, density, moisture, admixture,…

The characteristics of white pepper and black pepper

Although planted from the same plant, white pepper, and black pepper are processed in various ways and have different characteristics.

  • Black pepper is made from unripe plant berries that have been boiled in hot water and dried in the sun. The outer skin is wrinkled after drying, giving black pepper its final appearance.
  • White pepper is processed when the skin is removed, leaving only the seed inside. After that, the seeds are dried to form white pepper.
Black pepper White pepper
Processing Unripe fruits. Black pepper is boiled dried in the sun until it turns black and the skin becomes wrinkled The outer layer of the berry is removed, before or after ripening, with only the seed left, which is then dried
Color Brownish to dark brownish, blackish color. Free from added coloring Matt grey to brownish to pale ivory white. Free from added coloring
Flavor Hot, pungent, aromatic. The flavor shall have a penetrating odor and hot, biting pungent taste characteristics of black pepper excluding moldy and rancid odors Milder flavor, slightly sharp and very aromatic, excluding moldy and rancid odors
Shelf-life Longer, up to a year. Very short, must be eaten fresh
Price Less expensive More expensive due to more complex production

Economics value of white pepper and black pepper

White pepper and black pepper are the most familiar and commonly used in the household due to the large demand for culinary uses and the ease of production. Pepper has aided in the expansion of the economy, as well as the eradication of poverty and the improvement of farmer’s life.

  • Help reduce unemployment status and provide high income to workers.
  • Eradicate poverty and improve lives standards to the agricultural countries having suitable soil industrial crops.
  • A new direction to help people implement the model of intercropping between pepper and coffee will provide high yield, quality and maximize the value of the land.
  • Pepper is used in medicine, in the flavoring industry, and is used as a spice in the preparation of daily dishes.

Economic values of white pepper and black pepper

The white pepper and black pepper trade have made a significant contribution to Asian economies. Indeed, governments in exporting nations are increasing pepper trading through accords such as SAFTA, EVFTA, and others.

White pepper and black pepper: Key players in the game

According to IPC, the majority of black pepper is produced through the years by 4 countries, including Viet Nam, Brazil, India, and Indonesia:

Countries Production value (MT)
Vietnam 260,200
Brazil 80,000
Indonesia 78,000
India 48,000

Top 4 countries with the largest black pepper production value in 2019
(Sources: IPC)

These countries ranked the highest places due to the long life of export history and modern farming techniques, intense application.


Key players in the game

  • Vietnam: With a market share of about 45.5%, Vietnam was the top exporter of pepper. Vietnamese pepper has been sold to 105 nations and territories across the globe since 2019. In 2001, Vietnam’s white pepper and black pepper export turnover were 90 million dollars; by 2018, it had risen to 758.8 million dollars, a 700 percent growth.
  • Brazil: Brazil’s white pepper and black pepper are widely sold in the United States, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Lowlands, a suitable amount of rain, and mild winter are key factors that provide advantages for pepper high-production of pepper in Brazil.
  • Indonesia: Vietnam, China, and the United States are Indonesia’s main pepper export destinations, accounting for half of the country’s total pepper exports. To focus on serving the home market, Indonesia’s pepper production and productivity fell.
  • India: India is recognized as the spice capital of the world, and it has a long history of trading with China. Given its distinct aroma, taste, and medicinal value, India wholesale pepper is now one of the most highly prized in the world. Spices have traditionally been farmed in India on tiny plots of land using organic farming methods.

The wholesale price of white pepper and black pepper

The social-economic situation caused by the Covid – 19 epidemic result in supply-demand mismatch and transportation difficulties, which increased the exporting price of pepper.

Countries Average price by months in 2020 Average price by month in 2021 (up to October)
Indonesia 2.7653 USD/kg 3.3717 USD/kg
Brazil 2.08225 USD/kg 3.18768 USD/kg
Malaysia 3.43957 USD/kg 3.6384 USD/kg
India 3.8224 USD/kg 3.9054 USD/kg
Vietnam 2.3756 USD/kg 3.6469 USD/kg

Although the situation has cooled down, the price of white pepper and black pepper is still 45-57% higher than at beginning of 2021.

White pepper vs black pepper health benefits

Because white pepper and black pepper come from the same source, the benefits to be gained from white pepper are present in black pepper, including reducing inflammation, promoting digestion, decreasing blood pressure, increasing piperine, improving blood sugar control…


Black pepper health benefits

The difference implies by the characteristics of each type of pepper:

  • White pepper: Stir-fried white pepper is very effective at reducing diarrhea frequency in children and infants
  • Black pepper: Black pepper contains active chemicals that help the body’s white blood cells fight illnesses. In addition, with the proper use amount of black pepper, the cholesterol level can be also lowered, reducing the possibility of immediate death caused by heart disease.

Culinary uses of white pepper and black pepper

Black pepper is widely used in food spices and sauces around the world, particularly in the West. It is also commonly used as a meat-preservation seasoning. The rich flavors can assist to hide the meat’s characteristic strong odor.


Black pepper culinary uses

  • With fiery, pungent, and fragrant flavor, add flavor and spice to overall dishes such as meats, fish, vegetables, salad dressings, soups, stir-fries, and pasta.
  • To lend a peppery-spice accent to both savory and sweet preparations such as fruitcakes, bread, and pies.
  • Black peppercorns, along with other spices and herbs, are used in restaurants and hotels to marinate poultry, fish, and pork.

White pepper is a crucial component in Chinese cooking. For real flavor, use it in soups (such as hot and sour soup), sauces, stir-fries, and more. White pepper is also often used in Thai cuisine. White pepper and black pepper are versatile spices that may be used in a variety of cuisines.


White pepper culinary uses

  • Food decorating: Avoid dark speckles in light-colored meals
  • White pepper is most commonly used in soup and other hot dishes to provide taste and alleviate anorexia.
  • Enhance flavors and sense of salads or fried rice.

Light meals, soups, stews,… all benefit from white pepper. It’s commonly substituted for black pepper in ‘white’ or plain foods like spaghetti, which results in specks floating on the surface. It’s mostly a matter of taste or opting for white because it’s more gentle.

Prestigious companies provide white pepper and black pepper

The following companies provide high-quality pepper at a reasonable price:


Hanfimex is a prominent supplier and manufacturer of foods and spices in Vietnam, including cashew, pepper, cinnamon, coffee, and coconut. Hanfimex is regarded as one of the world’s finest agricultural exporting firms, with over 17 years of experience and large customer loyalty. The white pepper and black pepper product of Hanfimex are highly-recommend throughout the world due to the high-quality pepper workforce and factories. The company is recognized by the Ministry of Industry and Trade as a high-quality customer relationship.




K-Agriculture, situated in Hanoi, Vietnam, is a trusted supplier with more than 25 years of expertise exporting rice, coffee, and, in particular, numerous types of pepper to a wide range of demanding markets. Its biggest white pepper and black pepper export markets are Africa, the United States, and Japan. With the aid of the Ministry of Industry and Trade, K-Agriculture has brought the best Vietnamese agricultural products to the international market. With the slogan “Quality is King,” K-Agriculture consistently ensures the finest quality products at the most competitive prices. The company has already earned a number of certificates, including HACCP, ISO 9000, and FSSC 22000.



For more details, please contact us:

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Baria Pepper

Baria pepper was founded in 1985 with the goal of using its extensive understanding of both the product and the local market to reach out to more customers both domestically and globally. The white pepper and black pepper from Baria have been sold to the United States, Europe, the Middle East, and other Asian countries. Baria pepper has a significant advantage in managing the quality and pricing of the pepper due to its strong ties with local farmers.


Baria Pepper

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