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Vietnamese coffee production – from a big culture to the world’s leading industry

Vietnamese coffee production is ranked the second in the world (after Brazil) with an output of nearly 1,650,000 tons per year (ICO index). At the same time, Vietnam is in the top 5 coffee exporting countries with the highest dollar value.

See more: Top 3 leading coffee suppliers in Vietnam

General introduction about Vietnamese coffee production

Coffee production is the strength of Vietnam’s agricultural industry with an output of more than 1 million tons per year. Vietnam deserves to be the second coffee exporting country in the world.

The history of Vietnamese coffee

The French brought coffee into Vietnam around the 1850s. At first, it was grown mainly in the North such as Tuyen Quang, Lang Son, Ninh Binh, and some Central provinces such as Nghe An and Ha Tinh. 

After that, the French began to move coffee trees to the Central Highlands, the rich red land of Ba-dan is suitable for coffee trees to grow as well as bring the best output for Vietnamese coffee production.

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Vietnamese coffee production

Acreage of Vietnamese coffee land

The acreage of land for Vietnamese coffee production in Vietnam has decreased in the last 3 years mainly because many coffee trees are old and have low yields, so many residents have switched to cultivating other tropical plants.

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Acreage of Vietnamese coffee land

Vietnamese coffee output

Vietnamese coffee output in MY 2018/19 (from October 2018 to September 2019) reached 18.8% of global production, recording a decrease in production due to extreme weather conditions.

By MY 2019/20, contrary to ICO’s predictions about the Vietnamese coffee’s re-growth, Vietnamese coffee output continued to decrease by 5% compared to MY 2018/19 and accounted for 17.8% of global production due to the strong impact of the Covid-19 pandemic that makes farmers not to focus on caring coffee trees.

Vietnamese coffee output in MY 2020/21 will decrease by about 15% compared to the previous MY due to the impact of floods in October and drought in May and June.

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Vietnamese coffee production (thousand tons)

Vietnamese coffee producing regions

Vietnam has 3 coffee producing regions, in which the Central Highlands occupies the largest area and output.

  • Northwest of Vietnam: The Northwest is the oldest Vietnamese coffee production region. Son La is the second largest Arabica coffee growing province in Vietnam after Lam Dong with more than 20,000 hectares and an output of 30,000 tons/year.
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Vietnamese coffee production in Northwest of Vietnam

  • Central Highlands: With favorable natural conditions such as tropical monsoon climate, red basalt soil, abundant water from the Mekong River, the largest coffee producing area is in 5 provinces of the Central Highlands, accounting for 85.1% of the coffee growing area and more than 90% of Vietnamese coffee production.
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Vietnamese coffee production in Central Highlands

  • Quang Tri: For a long time, Vietnamese coffee production in Quang Tri was neglected by policies to develop Robusta coffee in the Central Highlands. Since 2011-2012, Quang Tri coffee production has been promoted for export because of its high quality and unique taste.
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Vietnamese coffee production in Quang Tri

Types of Vietnamese coffee

Currently, Vietnam has two main varieties of coffee, Arabica and Robusta. 

  • Robusta: Robusta accounts for 90% of Vietnamese coffee production, making Vietnam the second coffee exporter in the world.
  • Arabica: Arabica accounts for only 10% of Vietnamese coffee production, but has the potential to develop specialty coffee in the future.
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Types of Vietnamese coffee_ Arabica and Robusta

The Vietnamese coffee production process

The Vietnamese coffee production process is generally quite similar to that of other coffee producing countries in the world such as Brazil, India, Indonesia, Ethiopia, which involves many elaborate stages and requires strict standards for processing and handling.

However, the Vietnamese coffee production process has many differences related to seasonality, climate characteristics, topography, and technology application in the production process

Growing Vietnamese coffee

Vietnamese coffee production requires extremely harsh growing conditions. Each type of coffee has its own conditions. Arabica coffee trees require temperatures between 15°-24°C and an annual rainfall of about 1200 – 2200 mm/year. Robusta requires a higher temperature of 18° – 36°C and more rainfall (2200 – 3000 mm/year) than Arabica.

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Growing Vietnamese coffee

Harvesting Vietnamese coffee

Harvesting coffee, an essential step in the Vietnamese coffee production process, requires a large amount of labor as well as ensuring the techniques when choosing ripe coffee beans, and picking coffee properly.

In Vietnam, coffee is hand-harvested and is done in batches in a crop to get the ripe fruit on the tree in time. This process can use machines but the quality of the beans will be uneven. Ripe fruit must reach a rate of over 95% before it can be harvested and the percentage of impurities should not exceed 0.5%.

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Harvesting Vietnamese coffee

There are two common picking techniques in Vietnamese coffee production:

  • With selective picking, seeds with a relatively ripe ratio (about 2/3) will be selected. Do not pick berries that are too ripe or too green because that way the coffee beans will no longer retain their original flavor, creating conditions for mold to grow.
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Selective picking technique

  • Strip harvesting is a popular harvesting method in Vietnamese coffee production. It is “stripped” from the tip of the branch to the end. This way saves time and labor significantly, but the quality of coffee beans is not good because it is mixed with green and overripe beans.
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Strip harvesting technique

Processing Vietnamese coffee

Coffee processing process is indispensable and can be considered as one of the most important steps to decide the quality of the coffee products.

Dry processing method

As for the preliminary processing method in Vietnamese coffee production, dry processing is a common, natural, manual method and is applied by the majority of Vietnamese farmers, bringing high efficiency.

  • Definition: Dry process is a natural method that uses sunlight to dry freshly picked coffee beans. Vietnamese coffee production method makes the coffee beans dry quickly, without damage, the coffee will have a sweeter and more fragrant taste.
  • How to proceed

Step 1: Remove leaves, impurities from freshly harvested coffee beans.

Step 2: Dry it directly on the floor or use a canvas in the sun. Drying time may depend on temperature and time of day. Normally, coffee beans will be dried for 1 month until the moisture content in the beans ranges from 12% to 13%

Step 3: Dried coffee beans will be ground and dried to remove impurities, dirt, and remove the outer shell to produce white kernels.

Step 4: Store in clean bags and place in a cool place, prepare for grinding, processing or trading.

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Dry processing method

Washed processing method

Vietnamese coffee production by the washed process requires more water and machinery than dry processing. On the other hand, using this method is quite expensive.

  • Definition: Washed coffee processing method is a series of stages of processing coffee beans from harvesting, peeling, soaking, fermenting, and drying.
  • How to proceed

Step 1: The coffee will be poured into a tank filled with water. Large seeds will sink to the bottom to prepare for the following process. Damaged seeds, impurities, and leaves will float to the top and be removed.

Step 2: Removing the pods. This process requires rapid action for the fermentation to take place properly. Then the shell and mucus are separated, the remaining coffee beans continue to be sifted, the floor is brought to the water channel.

Step 3: After removing the pods and impurities, coffee beans need to meet the standards of food hygiene and safety according to Vietnamese coffee production law as well as those in the world. Fermentation will proceed to remove the mucus.  Fermentation usually takes place below 20 degrees Celsius and lasts up to 36 hours

Step 4: Expose the beans to sunlight to lower the moisture content of the beans by 10% to 20%. Finally, bagged for preservation or processing.

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Washed processing method

Honey processing method

Honey process is a combination of two methods of dry processing and washed processing, giving honey-colored coffee beans. The beans are fermented for less than 12 hours to retain some of the mucilage and moved to a drying stage to lower the moisture content to 10% to 12%.

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Honey processing method

Preserving Vietnamese coffee

It is very easy to fade the coffee smell after a month. So store it in a glass jar for at least 1 month to preserve its flavor.

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Preserving Vietnamese coffee

Preparing Vietnamese coffee

Arabica coffee is often paired with a variety of beverages such as Espresso, Cappuccino, Latte because the high quality of Arabica coffee makes for a good cup of coffee. To achieve a balanced taste, people often mix Arabica coffee with Robusta. Each blend ratio between Arabica and Robusta coffee will bring a unique taste of coffee. 

Vietnamese Robusta Coffee is frequently used in instant coffee. Its unique bitter taste and aroma are not retained by adding other elements such as milk and sugar to meet coffee drinkers’ standards. Therefore, many manufacturers have replaced Arabica coffee with Robusta coffee to reduce production costs.  

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Preparing Vietnamese coffee

How to buy Vietnamese coffee

Buyers can find products by searching for quality coffee suppliers in Vietnam on Google, major e-commerce sites like Alibaba, Amazon or international trade fairs held by Governments.

Prestigious Vietnamese coffee suppliers

The Top 3 Vietnamese coffee suppliers below are representatives for the distribution of high-quality coffee products in bulk, competitive price of coffee, and professional customer services.

Trung Nguyen Legend

With the mission of bringing Vietnamese coffee to the world, Chairman Dang Le Nguyen Vu dared to change the way coffee is grown and prepared to create excellent coffee beans.

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Trung Nguyen Legend

Trung Nguyen Legend products

Buon Ma Thuot coffee brand, famous for being the best Robusta coffee beans in the world, is one of the top five raw material regions that Trung Nguyen prioritizes to select to mix and create great energy coffee products. It contains the taste and culture of Vietnamese coffee for coffee lovers and enthusiasts around the world.

The coffee taste of Trung Nguyen is the result of a dedicated Vietnamese coffee production process, daring to change, and many aspirations. The coffee production process is rigorous and selective to bring the quintessential Vietnamese drink.

K – Agriculture Factory

Established in 1996 by a founder with deep experience in trading Vietnamese agricultural products, Mr.Daniel. K-Agriculture has been well-known as a Vietnamese leading and most prominent manufacturer, exporter, and distributor of coffee.

K- agriculture is the leading wholesale company in Vietnam which is powered by the Vietnam Ministry of Industry and Trade.

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K- Agriculture

K- Agriculture products

The company has direct connections with major coffee producers in Lang Son, Lam Dong, Vietnam that will be responsible for distributing Vietnamese coffee, ensuring the Vietnamese coffee production standards of Vietnam and the world.

The company mainly provides processed raw coffee beans, committed to typical Arabica beans, the taste quality of the highland country as well as pure Robusta with reasonable prices.

Buyers can trade easily because of Direct wholesale company, Best Price, High Quality, Attentive customer care, Assurance & Exchange policy, Easy to buy Online.

Contact information:

Phone: +84855 555 837 (Whatsapp Available)

Website: k-agriculture.com

Email: info@k-agriculture.com

Laha coffee

Laha coffee is a Vietnamese coffee brand that provides wholesale coffee in Ho Chi Minh. They create a model that sells high-quality coffee at an affordable price. 

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Laha coffee products

They have successfully tested Yellow Bourbon – a coffee variety with an attractive taste and 2-3 times higher price than other popular coffee. Since then, we have donated seeds and guided cultivation techniques to ensure output for people around the world.

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